First of all, for those of you who have been patiently waiting for my report on the Saudi family, I’m still working on it. Every time I thought I was finished. I found something more. I will finish it asap.
Now, for those of you taking my class on the Crusades, this is where you will find extra information and synopses of previous classes as well as my general ideas for the whole course.
This map will be on the screen at the next class. In the last class we….
Set the scene by touching on the complexity of the situation in the three major areas: Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire (which they called the Roman Empire) and the Turkish Caliphs in Baghdad. We also touched upon the various Christian sects in the east. I forgot to mention that there were also at least three Jewish sects, Talmudic, Karite and Samaritan. Yes, those Samaritans.
The idea of a Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from the Muslims had been floating about for some time. Pope Gregory VII had tried to stir up interest in 1071. Prof. Andrew Holt has an excellent article on this in his blog: https://apholt.com/2016/07/12/gregory-vii-call-for-a-crusade-1074/
Why the call to a Crusade failed in 1071 and was wildly popular in 1095 is not easy to say. There are a number of theories. Some have been discarded by historians, such as the belief that invading the Holy Land would be an outlet for younger sons or that all of Europe blindly obeyed the pope. (They wished!) One thing I stressed was that most individuals were very religious, if not respectful of clerical authority. Whatever their other motivations, the remission of sins was a major reason to take the cross.
In the east the long wars between Byzantium and Baghdad had weakened both sides. This was compounded by civil war among the Byzantines and loss of authority among other Islamic groups by the Sunnit Caliphs. The Shi’ite Fatimids of Egypt were also moving into the Near East. For the Caliphs, they were a greater threat than the Christians.
We discussed the beginnings of the First Crusade and will go over this in the second class, along with the travel across Europe by both the “Peasant Army” led by Peter the Hermit, and the “Army of the Barons”, led by an uneasy coalition of upper nobility.
The remaining five classes will cover:
2. The First Crusade and settlement in the Crusader States.
3. The space between the Crusades and the acculturation of the new settlers as well as the reactions of Muslims, Eastern Christians, Jews and others to their arrival.
4. The Second and Third Crusades, both led by Kings.
5. The Fourth Crusade and the sack of Constantinople leading to an altered attitude toward crusading.
6. Other “crusades”: the Albigensian Crusade in Southern France, the Children’s Crusade and the expeditions of Louis IX aka St. Louis.
Well, that’s the plan, anyway. I’ll give you a reading list at the end so that you can fill in the gaps.